The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

December 2020 – January 2021

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy




As we reflect upon a year that brought unprecedented challenges and new perspectives, we are thankful for you, the thoughtful and dedicated community that makes up the Consortium’s members, friends, and the field of gun violence prevention. We are honored to work alongside you in making the world a safer, better place through risk-based firearm policy.


We would like to offer a special thanks to those of who are healthcare providers and others on the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many of you spent 2020 serving selflessly — treating patients, educating the public, conducting research, and advocating for change — often to combat both COVID-19 and gun violence. We are all indebted to you.


We look optimistically to 2021 and wish you and yours a healthy, safe, and happy New Year.


In the spirit of looking forward, our colleagues at the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence shared gun violence prevention recommendations with the incoming Biden-Harris Administration’s transition team, including federal support for Consortium-recommended ERPOs and lethal means safety counseling. We look forward to continued advocacy and advancement of the Consortium’s recommendations in policy nationwide.


New data:

  • The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence and Educational Fund to Stop Gun Violence conducted early analyses of the CDC’s newly released 2019 mortality data (twitter thread and press release also available), including the following findings:
    • The decade: the overall U.S. gun death rate increased 17% from 2010-2019
    • In 2019, there were 39,707 gun deaths in the U.S., of which
      • 60% were suicides (23,941) and 36% were homicides (14,414).
      • 3,390 were children and teens (0-19 years).
      • 86% were male.
    • Firearm homicide continues to disproportionately impact young, Black males: 37% of gun homicide victims in 2019 were Black teens and men between the ages of 15-34, although they make up only 2% of the U.S. population. They were killed by gun homicide at a rate nearly 17 times higher than non-Latino White males of the same age group.
    • The firearm suicide rate has been growing over the last decade. While 2019 showed a slight reprieve with 491 fewer firearm suicides reported than in 2018, suicide (by any method) continues to be the 10th leading cause of death in the country and firearms continue to account for half of all suicides.
  • The Trace published an analysis of preliminary 2020 city-level homicide data, finding that homicides rose by 50 percent or more in 2020 in over a dozen cities. Consortium contributor Shani Buggs is quoted.

New resources:

Judicial updates:

  • On December 14, 2020, the Supreme Court denied a petition for certiorari in Torres v. United States, a case from the 9th Circuit regarding an as-applied challenge to the felony firearm prohibition wherein the underlying criminal convictions in the case are aggravated DUI with a person under 15 in the vehicle and aggravated driving or actual physical control of a vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs. Because the Supreme Court declined to take up the case, the ruling of the 9th Circuit, which found that persons convicted of felony offenses may not bring an as-applied Second Amendment challenge, stands.
  • Folajtar v. Barr is now pending before the Supreme Court. The issue presented in the case originating in the 3rd Circuit is whether 922(g)(1) violates the Second Amendment as applied to an individual convicted of felony tax fraud.
  • Holloway v. Barr is a case from the 3rd Circuit pending before the Supreme Court. The issue presented in the case is whether a lifetime firearms prohibition based on a nonviolent misdemeanor conviction violates the Second Amendment. The underlying criminal convictions in the case are two offenses for driving under the influence of alcohol. The offenses are classified under state law as misdemeanors, but disqualify an individual from purchasing or possessing firearms under 922(g)(1) because they carry a possible sentence of two years or more in prison.
  • Mai v. United States is a case from the 9th Circuit pending before the Supreme Court. The issue presented in the case is whether 922(g)(4) – which prohibits persons who are “adjudicated mental defective” or “committed to a mental institution” violates the Second Amendment as-applied to an individual who was involuntarily committed over twenty years ago and has since been a mentally healthy, stable, and law-abiding individual.

Upcoming Events:

Want to take a look back at the gun violence prevention research published in 2020? See our newsletter archive and follow us on twitter, where we share our research recaps each month. Until next time, stay safe, socially distanced, and masked, and have a happy New Year.




Anestis MD & Bryan CJ. (2021). Threat perceptions and the intention to acquire firearms. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 


Anestis MD, Bryan CJ, Capron DW, & Bryan AO. (2020). Lethal means counseling, distribution of cable locks, and safe firearm storage practices among the Mississippi National Guard: A factorial randomized controlled trial, 2018-2020. American Journal of Public Health. 


Baranauskas AJ. (2020). Public opinion on support for arming teachers with guns in the United States. Justice Quarterly. 


Bonne S. (2020). Educational Innovation for Gun Violence in the US. Journal of the American College of Surgeons.


Bowen AG, Tessler RA, Bowen D, Haviland MJ, Rowhani-Rahbar A, & Rivara FP. (2020). Relation of driving under the influence laws to access to firearms across US states. American Journal of Public Health. 


Brownstein JS, Nahari AD, & Reis BY. (2020). Internet search patterns reveal firearm sales, policies, and deaths. NPJ Digital Medicine. 


Cheon C, Lin Y, Harding DJ, Wang W, & Small DS. (2020). Neighborhood racial composition and gun homicides. JAMA Network Open. 


Clary C, Lambarth L, & Kaushik R. (2020). Locked and (un)-loaded discussions: A pediatric resident safe firearm storage counseling curriculum. MedEdPORTAL. 


Conner A, Azrael D, & Miller M. (2020). Firearm safety discussions between clinicians and U.S. adults living in households with firearms: Results from a 2019 national survey. Annals of Internal Medicine. 


Crifasi CK, Stone EM, McGinty EE, & Barry CL. (2021). Differences in public support for gun policies between women and men. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 


Crifasi CK, Booty MD, Buggs SA, Webster DW, & Sherman SG. (2020). Worth the risk? Gun carrying and perceived criminal justice responses in Baltimore. Injury Prevention. 


Davidson JE, Ye G, Deskins F, Rizzo H, Moutier C, & Zisook S. (2020). Exploring nurse suicide by firearms: A mixed-method longitudinal (2003-2017) analysis of death investigations. Nursing Forum. 


Dixon G, Garrett K, Susmann M, & Bushman BJ. (2020). Public opinion perceptions, private support, and public actions of US adults regarding gun safety policy. JAMA Network Open. 


Gomez DB, Xu Z, & Saleh JH. (2020). From regression analysis to deep learning: Development of improved proxy measures of state-level household gun ownership. Patterns. 


Hayes BE, Powers RA, & O’Neal EN. (2020). What’s under the regalia? An examination of campus concealed weapon carrying behavior and attitudes toward policies. Journal of School Violence. 


Kaufman EJ, Wiebe DJ, Xiong RA, Morrison CN, Seamon MJ, & Delgado MK. (2020). Epidemiologic trends in fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries in the US, 2009-2017. JAMA Internal Medicine. 


Kelsay JD, Silver IA, & Barnes JC. (2020). The association between adolescent gun ownership and gun carrying and adulthood violence and victimization. Violence and Victims. 


Lynch KR & Jackson DB. (2020). Firearm exposure and the health of high-risk intimate partner violence victims. Social Science and Medicine. 


Magee LA, Fortenberry JD, Tu W, & Wiehe SE. (2020). Neighborhood variation in unsolved homicides: A retrospective cohort study in Indianapolis, Indiana, 2007-2017. Injury Epidemiology. 


Ojo A, Guntuku SC, Zheng M, Beidas RS, & Ranney ML. (2020). How healthcare workers wield influence through twitter hashtags: A tale of two public health crises. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. 


Orlins E, DeBois K, & Chatfield SL. (2020). Characteristics of interpersonal conflicts preceding youth suicide: Analysis of data from the 2017 National Violent Death Reporting System. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 


Orsulic-Jeras S, Powers S, Empeno J, Lagasca R, Abrams A, Barker S, McDaniel R, & Hanna M. (2020). Addressing gun safety and dementia: Training professionals in the community. Innovation in Aging. 


Pavlova A & Berkers P. (2020). “Mental health” as defined by Twitter: Frames, emotions, stigma. Health Communication. 


Pennington ML, Ylitalo KR, Lanning BA, Dolan SL, & Gulliver SB. (2020). An epidemiologic study of suicide among firefighters: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003 – 2017. Psychiatry Research. 


Petrosky E, Ertl A, Sheats KJ, Wilson R, Betz CJ, & Blair JM. (2020). Surveillance for violent deaths—National Violent Death Reporting System, 34 states, four California counties, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 


Raj A. (2020). Gun violence in the U.S.: It is past time we listen to the voices of women and black communities. EClinicalMedicine. 


Rajendran S, Mills PD, Watts BV, & Gunnar W. (2020). Suicide and suicide attempts on Veterans Affairs medical center outpatient clinic areas, common areas, and hospital grounds. Journal of Patient Safety. 


Reidy DE, Huntington C, Smith HW, Bogen KW, Estefan LF, & Orchowski LM. (2020). Community-level risk & protective correlates of violent crimes. Preventive Medicine. 


Richardson JB, Wical W, Kottage N, & Bullock C. (2020). Shook ones: Understanding the intersection of nonfatal violent firearm injury, incarceration, and traumatic stress among young black men. American Journal of Men’s Health. 


Riddell JR & Worrall JL. (2021). Predicting firearm and CEW displays as police officers’ response to resistance. Journal of Criminal Justice. 


Rosenberg M. (2020). Considerations for developing an agenda for gun violence prevention research. Annual Review of Public Health. 


Shelby D. (2021). Association between adult alcohol misuse, adult mental health, and firearm storage practices in households with children: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Public Health Theses. 


South EC, Stillman K, Buckler DG, & Wiebe D. (2020). Association of gun violence with emergency department visits for stress-responsive complaints. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 


Stanley IH, Sachs-Ericsson NJ, & Joiner TE. (2020). Suicidal ideation in the context of prospective firearm ownership. Psychiatry Research. 


Stevens J & Bridge JA. (2020). Household firearms, child access prevention laws, and adolescent suicide. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 


Streed CG, Turner B, Beach LB, Marro R, Felt D, Wang X, & Phillips G. (2020). Safety and predictors of sexual minority youth carrying weapons. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 


Stroud A. (2020). Guns don’t kill people…: Good guys and the legitimization of gun violence. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 


Turkiewicz AM, Wolf M, Charles S, Healy ME, & Schreyer KE. (2020). Expanding the safety net: Emergency department–based gun lock distribution for violence prevention. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 


Vargas EW & Hemenway D. (2020). Emotional and physical symptoms after gun victimization in the United States, 2009-2019. Preventive Medicine. 


Weiler SC, Skousen JD, Kopanke J, & Cornelius L. (2021). Taking aim at preventing school shootings: A comparative analysis of school board policy related to the practice of arming educators. Journal of School Violence. 


White K, Cook PJ, & Pollack HA. (2020). Gunshot-victim cooperation with police investigations: Results from the Chicago Inmate Survey. Preventive Medicine. 


Woolf AD, Pingali H, & Hauptman M. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and children’s environmental health. Pediatric Annals. 


Follow us on Twitter @Consortium_RBFP
For more information, contact Silvia Villarreal at

View All Newsletters