The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

February 2024

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy



February is Black History Month. This month-long observance is not only an opportunity to celebrate the contributions and achievements of African Americans but also, to highlight the on-going inequity and systemic racism that people who are Black face today, including gun violence. 

Black communities are disproportionately impacted by gun violence. Provisional data released from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed that over 14,000 Black people died from gun violence in 2022, a nearly 80% increase from a decade ago in 2013. In addition, Black children and teens had a gun homicide rate 20 times higher than their white counterparts from 2013 to 2022. Furthermore, for the first time, the gun suicide rate among Black children and teens (ages 10-19) surpassed the rate among white teens (ages 10-19). While no one is immune from gun violence, the provisional data shows gun violence continues to disproportionately impact Black communities, with rates exceeding those of other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. 

For more information, please check out the article from Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Violence Solutions. 




This month we are featuring the study “Racial and ethnic differences in the effects of state firearm laws: a systematic review subgroup analysis authored by Rosanna Smart, Dionne Barnes-Proby, Pierrce Holmes, Terry Schell, and Andrew Morral. 

Understanding how state firearm laws impact different communities is crucial to addressing gun violence as it disproportionately affects Black, Hispanic/Latino and Native American populations. This study reviewed existing research, examining which firearm policies produce differential effects by race and ethnicity on injury, recreational or defensive gun use, and gun ownership or purchasing behaviors. 

While the review found limited evidence of significant differences, findings emphasize the need for rigorous research with an explicit focus on testing for racial differences in firearm policy effects. Such research should assess the quality of race/ethnicity data in firearm injury and crime datasets to ensure its accuracy. 








Clarke AT, Grassetti SN, Brumley L, Ross KY, Erdly C, Richter S, Brown ER, & Pole M. (2024). Integrating trauma-informed services in out-of-school time programs to mitigate the impact of community gun violence on youth mental health. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community.  


Cook N, Hoopes M, Biel FM, Cartwright N, Gordon M, & Sills M. (2024). Early results of an initiative to assess exposure to firearm violence in ambulatory care: Descriptive analysis of electronic health record data. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.  


DiVietro S, Hunter AA, Schwab-Reese L, Green C, & Aseltine R. (2024). Disparities among pediatric firearm suicides in the United States: An analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2014 to 2018. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.  


Goodwill JR, & Baccile R. (2024). Suicide methods and trends across race/ethnicity, age, and sex groups in Chicago, Illinois, 2015–2021. American Journal of Public Health.  


Kennedy SR., Buck-Atkinson J, Moceri-Brooks J, Johnson ML, Anestis MD, Carrington M, Baker JC, Fisher ME, Nease DE, Bryan AO, Bryan CJ, & Betz ME. (2024). Military community engagement to prevent firearm-related violence: Adaptation of project safe guard for service members. Injury Epidemiology. 


Lee DB, Simmons M, Sokol RL, Crimmins H, LaRose J, Zimmerman MA, & Carter PM. (2024). Firearm suicide risk beliefs and prevention: The role of fear of community violence and firearm ownership for protection. Journal of Psychiatric Research.  


Semenza DC, Daruwala S, Brooks Stephens JR, & Anestis MD. (2024). Gun violence exposure and suicide among black adults. JAMA Network Open.  


Sokol RL, & Austin AE. (2024). State expansion of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility and rates of firearm-involved deaths in the United States. Injury Prevention.  


Tam I, Yeates EFA, & Silver AH. (2024). Urban teen perspectives on gun violence: A mixed methods study. Journal of Urban Health.  


Waller BY, Joseph VA, & Keyes KM. (2024). Racial inequities in homicide rates and homicide methods among Black and White women aged 25–44 years in the USA, 1999–2020: A cross-sectional time series study. The Lancet.  


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For more information, contact Silvia Villarreal at

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