The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

January 2020

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy



2020 kicked off to an exciting start for the Consortium! On January 9th, the Consortium steering committee convened with select guests and the guidance of many stakeholders, hosted by the Ed Fund, to explore contemporary issues related to extreme risk protection order policy and implementation. Since the Consortium’s original recommendation in 2013 for states to enact extreme risk protection orders (originally called gun violence restraining orders), this evidence-based policy has changed the national gun violence prevention policy landscape. The Consortium is again weighing in with updated recommendations to address questions that have arisen and provide evidence-based guidance for advocates, lawmakers, and stakeholders working to enact and implement extreme risk protection orders in their communities. Thank you to all who contributed to the meeting and report review process. We look forward to sharing the final result in the coming weeks.


Hot off the press: On January 30, the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics released 2018 mortality data, and today, January 31, the Ed Fund released an initial report, Gun Violence in America, 2018 Data Brief, based on these data. The current release focuses on raw numbers of fatalities and does not include rates; as such, the Ed Fund’s brief will be reissued when more comprehensive data become publicly available, including age-adjusted rates, demographics, and state-by-state breakdowns. Major findings based on the 2018 data currently released include:

  • 39,740 Americans died by gun violence in 2018, which is 33 fewer than in 2017. In other words, gun violence death totals remained relatively steady from 2017 to 2018.
  • An average of 109 people died by gun violence each day in 2018, bringing the most recent five-year average (2014-2018) to 103 gun deaths every day.
  • 13,958 Americans were murdered by firearm in 2018 — more than 38 people every day. While firearm homicides have increased over the last decade, 2018 registered a notable decrease of 584 deaths as compared to 2017.
  • 24,432 Americans died by firearm suicide in 2018 — 67 people every day. This marks an increase of 578 deaths compared to 2017 and the first time annual firearm suicides exceeded 24,000, continuing a trend of annual increases in firearm suicide deaths since 2006.
  • 458 people died by unintentional firearm injuries in 2018 — more than 1 person every day. Unintentional firearm deaths have decreased over the past decade.
  • 539 people died by legal intervention by firearm in 2018 — more than 1 person every day. Note that this is likely an undercount.
  • 353 firearm deaths were documented in 2018 for which the intent was undetermined — nearly 1 person every day.

For another delve into data, the non-partisan and objective research organization NORC at the University of Chicago released a new report on firearms data infrastructure, The State of Firearms Data in 2019; multiple Consortium members serve on the expert panel that developed the report.


In case you missed it, our December 2019 newsletter featured a look back at the Consortium’s accomplishments since its founding in 2013. That and more can be found in our newsletter archive and on our twitter feed! Finally, don’t forget to email us your updates so we can amplify and highlight the gun violence prevention work you’re doing. This month’s research recap is below.




Adhia A, Goddard J, Kernic MA, Fan MD, Vavilala MS, & Rivara FP. (2020). Variation in state laws on access to civil protection orders for adolescents experiencing intimate partner violence. Journal of Adolescent Health.


Appelbaum PS. (2020). Violent acts and being the target of violence among people with mental illness: The data and their limits. JAMA Psychiatry. 


Budrys G. (2020). Firearm-related mortality in the US. Health Affairs. 


Butkus R, Rapp K, Cooney TG, Engel LS, & Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians. (2020). Envisioning a better U.S. health care system for all: Reducing barriers to care and addressing social determinants of health. Annals of Internal Medicine.


Calvert CM, Brady SS, & Jones-Webb R. (2020). Perceptions of violent encounters between police and young black men across stakeholder groups. Journal of Urban Health.


Choi KR, Saadi A, Takada S, Easterlin MC, Buchbinder LS, Johnson DC, & Zimmerman FJ. (2020). Longitudinal associations between healthcare resources, policy, and firearm-related suicide and homicide from 2012 to 2016. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 


Hatchimonji JS, Swendiman RA, Goldshore MA, Blinman TA, Nance ML, Allukian M, & Nace GW. (2019). Pediatric firearm mortality in the United States, 2010-2016: A national trauma data bank analysis. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 


Hoffmann JA, Farrell CA, Monuteaux MC, Fleegler EW, & Lee LK. (2020). Association of pediatric suicide with county-level poverty in the United States, 2007-2016. JAMA Pediatrics. 


Jay J, Miratrix LW, Branas CC, Zimmerman MA, & Hemenway D. (2020). A response to “Comment on ‘Urban building demolitions, firearm violence and drug crime.’” Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 


Justus M, Hemenway D, & Miller M. (2020). The relationship between alcohol consumption and the desire to own a firearm: An empirical study on citizens of São Paulo City, Brazil. Public Health.


Kagawa RMC, Pear VA, Rudolph KE, Keyes KM, Cerdá M, & Wintemute GJ. (2019). Distress level and daily functioning problems attributed to firearm victimization: Sociodemographic-specific responses. Annals of Epidemiology. 


Kelly T, Brandspigel S, Polzer E, & Betz ME. (2020). Firearm storage maps: A pragmatic approach to reduce firearm suicide during times of risk. Annals of Internal Medicine. 


Ketterer AR, Poland S, Ray K, Abuhasira R, & Aldeen AZ. (2020). Emergency providers’ familiarity with firearms: A national survey. Academic Emergency Medicine.


Kolbe LJ. (2020). School gun violence in the United States. Journal of School Health.


Monteith LL, Wendleton L, Bahraini NH, Matarazzo BB, Brimner G, & Mohatt NV. (2020). Together with veterans: VA national strategy alignment and lessons learned from community-based suicide prevention for rural veterans. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 


Pallin R, Charbonneau A, Kravitz-Wirtz N, & Wintemute GJ. (2020). Public opinion on firearm injury prevention proposals in California. JAMA Network Open. 


Runyan CW, Brandspigel S, Barber CW, Betz M, Azrael D, & Miller M. (2019). Lessons learned in conducting youth suicide prevention research in emergency departments. Injury Prevention. 


Sakran JV. (2020). The impact of bleeding control: A perspective beyond firearm injury! Annals of Surgery. 


Skeem J, Scurich N, & Monahan J. (2020). Impact of risk assessment on judges’ fairness in sentencing relatively poor defendants. Law and Human Behavior.


Smith ME, Sharpe TL, Richardson J, Pahwa R, Smith D, & DeVylder J. (2019). The impact of exposure to gun violence fatality on mental health outcomes in four urban U.S. settings. Social Science and Medicine.


Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. (2020). Preventing firearm violence in youth through evidence-informed strategies. Journal of Adolescent Health.


Stanley IH & Anestis MD. (2020). The intersection of PTSD symptoms and firearm storage practices within a suicide prevention framework: Findings from a U.S. Army National Guard sample. Psychological Services.


Stanley IH, Hom MA, Sachs-Ericsson NJ, Gallyer AJ, & Joiner TE. (2020). A pilot randomized clinical trial of a lethal means safety intervention for young adults with firearm familiarity at risk for suicide. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 


Traynor K. (2020). ASHP councils discuss firearms, workplace violence. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 


Winfield RD, Crandall M, Williams BH, Sakran JV, Shorr K, & Zakrison TL. (2019). Firearm violence in the USA: A frank discussion on an American public health crisis-The Kansas City Firearm Violence Symposium. Trauma Surgery and Acute Care Open.


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