The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

November 2021

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy



Every October, organizations working on violence prevention around the country observe Domestic Violence Awareness Month (DVAM) as a way to bridge and connect with others who are working on domestic violence and to raise collective awareness on those issues. Domestic Violence is prevalent in every community and affects all people. In the United States, more than 10 million adults experience domestic violence annually. When firearms are involved, domestic violence becomes lethal. Domestic violence firearm homicides reached a 26-year high during the pandemic as firearm homicides involving intimate partners increased 25% in 2020 compared to the previous year.


As part of DVAM, government leaders, community organizations, and advocates across the nation sounded the alarm on the concerning rise of domestic violence through different channels and working scopes. For example, federal legislative bills, such as, the Family Violence Prevention and Services Improvement Act of 2021 (HR 2119) and Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization Act of 2021 (HR 1620) will provide funding to crimes against women and families, including programs, resources, and services centered on domestic violence. In terms of research, there are relevant studies published recently that examine the role of domestic violence in fatal mass shootings as well as the risk factors and challenges of domestic violence in rural areas where firearms are easily available and accessible. Check this month’s newsletter for more information on domestic violence including media highlights, podcasts, and webinars.


Federal updates

  • The Senate Appropriations Committee released their draft funding bills, which outlined funding for the following programs through DOJ, among others:
    • $125,000,000 to National Instant Criminal Background Check System Initiative Grants, an increase of $40,000,000 above enacted level
    • $2,000,000 for ATF to create a competitive grant program for universities and colleges to acquire ballistics ID equipment and programs
    • $100,000,000 for Office of Justice Programs to issue grants for violence intervention and prevention programs, including to address gang and gun violence.
  • A Congressional Oversight hearing of the Department of Justice was held on October 21. During the House hearing, Attorney General Merrick Garland discussed his support of a national extreme risk protective order (ERPO) law; the need for firearm tracing/ elimination of ghost guns, and the importance of closing the background check loophole.
  • On October 27, the House Judiciary Committee held a markup hearing regarding HR 2377, the Federal Extreme Risk Protection Order Act of 2021. The bill was voted out of Committee.
  • The Build Back Better Act, President Biden’s proposed infrastructure plan, includes $5 billion for community violence intervention programs. Congress is poised to vote on this in the coming weeks.

New resources

Judicial updates

  • Today, November 3, the Supreme Court is hearing oral arguments in New York State Rifle & Pistol Association, Inc. (NYSRPA) v. Bruen, a challenge to a 108-year-old New York state law requiring anyone who wishes to carry a handgun in public to demonstrate “proper cause” before they can obtain a license allowing them to do so. The Duke Center for Firearms Law did a brief breakdown of the amicus briefs for NYSRPA v. Bruen. There have been 84 amicus briefs submitted for this case, which is a little shy of the overall record of 94 briefs and well above the current average 16. The EFSGV-led brief, co-authored by several Consortium members, received a small mention: “Many of the briefs took unique angles. For example, one argued the right was limited to the militia; one introduced corpus linguistics; another asserted that gun violence is a public health problem.

Media highlights

Upcoming events

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Amin D, Manhan A, Smith R, Roser SM, & Abramowicz S. (2021). Incidence of gunshot wounds to head and neck increased during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.


Barnard LM, McCarthy M, Knoepke CE, Kaplan S, Engeln J, & Betz ME. (2021). Colorado’s first year of extreme risk protection orders. Injury Epidemiology.


Barsotti C. (2021). Standing Affirm: EPs must counsel patients on firearm storage, access. Emergency Medicine News.


Betz ME & Haasz M. (2021). Divergent and unified: A path forward for firearm injury prevention. Journal of the American College of Surgeons.


Blackwood KL & Christopher PP. (2021). U.S. extreme risk protection orders to prevent firearm injury: The clinician’s role. Annals of Internal Medicine.


Bock JE, Tucker RP, Brown RP, Harrington EE, Bauer BW, Daruwala SE, Capron DW, & Anestis MD. (2021). Factors contributing to honor-endorsing men’s suicide capability: Firearm ownership, practical capability, and exposure to painful and provocative events. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior.


Borchard K. (2021). Experimental writing on recent mass shootings. International Review of Qualitative Research.


Bossarte RM, Ziobrowski HN, Benedek DM, Dempsey CL, King AJ, Nock MK, Sampson NA, Stein MB, Ursano RJ, & Kessler RC. (2021). Mental disorders, gun ownership, and gun carrying among soldiers after leaving the army, 2016–2019. American Journal of Public Health.


Buggs S & Zeoli AM. (2021). Gun homicide research: What we know and where we need to go. Homicide Studies.


Carter PM, Cunningham RM, Eisman AB, Resnicow K, Roche JS, Cole JT, Goldstick J, Kilbourne AM, & Walton MA. (2021). Translating violence prevention programs from research to practice: SafERteens implementation in an urban emergency department. Journal of Emergency Medicine.


Choi KR, O’Malley C, Ijadi-Maghsoodi R, Tascione E, Bath E, & Zima BT. (2021). A scoping review of police involvement in school crisis response for mental health emergencies. School Mental Health.


Colon-Rivera H, Rolin AI, & Dixon LB. (2021). Adolescent suicide: Identifying risk and implementing interventions. Psychiatric Services.


Fleegler EW. (2021). Our limited knowledge of youth suicide risk and firearm access. JAMA Network Open.


Fox JA & Levin J. (2021). Mass murder in America: Trends, characteristics, explanations, and policy response. Homicide Studies.


Goolsby C, Lala V, Gebner R, Dacuyan‐Faucher N, Charlton N, & Schuler K. (2021). Emergency physician risk of occupational mortality: A scoping review. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open.


Green DA & Evans AM. (2021). Undue police violence toward African Americans: An analysis of professional counselors’ training and perceptions. Journal of Counseling & Development.


Harr MR, Mansfield CJ, Urbach B, Briggs M, Onate J, & Boucher LC. (2021). Prevalence and incidence of injury during olympic-style shooting events: A systematic review. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy.


Hsu HT, Fulginiti A, Petering R, Barman-Adhikari A, Bedell K, Ferguson KM, Narendorf SC, Shelton J, Santa Maria D, Bender K, & Rice E. (2021). Understanding the correlates of firearm violence involvement among young adults experiencing homelessness: A 7-city study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Iwama J. (2021). Reducing violence?: Examining the impact of gun control legislation in Massachusetts. Justice Quarterly. 


Kagawa RM, McCort CD, Schleimer J, Pear VA, Charbonneau A, Buggs SA, Wintemute GJ, & Laqueur HS. (2021). Racial bias and DUI enforcement: Comparing conviction rates with frequency of behavior. Criminology & Public Policy.


Katz I. (2021). Harm reduction for veterans (and others) who carry guns and experience anger attacks. American Journal of Public Health.


Kruis NE, Wentling RL, Frye TS, & Rowland NJ. (2021). Firearm ownership, defensive gun usage, and support for gun control: Does knowledge matter? American Journal of Criminal Justice.


Liller KD & Mehmood A. (2021). The important role for physicians as advocates for firearm and road traffic injury prevention. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine.


Loder RT, Young A, & Atoa B. (2021). Firearm injuries associated with law enforcement activity. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.


Lu X, Astur R, & Gifford, T. (2021). Effects of gunfire location information and guidance on improving survival in virtual mass shooting events. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 


Lynch KR & Logan T. (2021). “Always know where the gun is”: Service providers perceptions of firearm access, violence, and safety planning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.


Magee LA. (2021). Differences in mortality rates of gunshot victims: The influence of neighborhood social processes. Homicide Studies.


McLeod RS, Moore EE, Crozier JA, Civil ID, Ahmed N, Bulger EM, & Stewart RM. (2021). A public health approach to prevent firearm related injuries and deaths. Annals of Surgery.


Messing JT, AbiNader M, Bent-Goodley T, & Campbell J. (2021). Preventing intimate partner homicide: The long road ahead. Homicide Studies.


Miller KR, Jones CM, McClave SA, Christian V, Adamson P, Neel DR, Bozeman M, & Benns MV. (2021). Food access, food insecurity, and gun violence: Examining a complex relationship. Current Nutrition Reports.


Milliff A. (2021). Facts shape feelings: Information, emotions, and the political consequences of violence. Political Behavior.


Nehra D, Bulger EM, Maier RV, Moloney KE, Russo J, Wang J, Anderson K, & Zatzick DF. (2021). A prospective US national trauma center study of firearm injury survivors weapon carriage and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Annals of Surgery.


Nelson R. (2021). 2020: Deadliest year for gun violence in decades. AJN The American Journal of Nursing.


Pallin R & Barnhorst A. (2021). Clinical strategies for reducing firearm suicide. Injury Epidemiology.


Pear VA, Schleimer JP, Tomsich E, Pallin R, Charbonneau A, Wintemute GJ, & Knoepke CE. (2021). Implementation and perceived effectiveness of gun violence restraining orders in California: A qualitative evaluation. PLoS ONE.


Polzer ER, Nearing KA, Knoepke CE, Matlock DD, & Betz ME. (2021). Firearm access and dementia: A qualitative study of reported behavioral disturbances and responses. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.


Pontes NMH & Pontes M. (2021). Additive interactions between school bullying victimization and gender on weapon carrying among U.S. high school students: Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 to 2015. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.


Price JH & Khubchandani J. (2021). Childhood suicide trends in the United States, 2010–2019. Journal of Community Health. 


Schutten NM, Pickett JT, Burton AL, Jonson CL, Cullen FT, & Burton JR, VS. (2021). Are guns the new dog whistle? Gun control, racial resentment, and vote choice*. Criminology.


Silva JR. (2021). Mass shooting outcomes: A comparison of completed, attempted, failed, and foiled incidents in America. Deviant Behavior. 


Somers P, Gao H, & Taylor ZW. (2021). “I do not speak as freely”: Gendered views on campus carry at a research university. Education and Urban Society.


Spark TL, Wright-Kelly E, Ma M, James KA, Reid CE, & Brooks-Russell A. (2021). Assessment of rural-urban and geospatial differences in perceived handgun access and reported suicidality among youth in Colorado. JAMA Network Open.


Ssentongo P, Fronterre C, Ssentongo AE, Advani S, Heilbrunn ES, Hazelton JP, Oh JS, McCall-Hosenfeld JS, & Chinchilli VM. (2021). Gun violence incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic is higher than before the pandemic in the United States. Scientific Reports.


Takada S, Choi KR, Natsui S, Saadi A, Buchbinder L, Easterlin M, & Zimmerman FJ. (2021). Firearm laws and the network of firearm movement among US states. BMC Public Health.


Tanne JH. (2021). COVID-19: Gun violence in US increased 30% during pandemic. BMJ.


Tracy BM, Whitson AK, Chen J, Weiss BD, & Sims CA. (2021). Examining violence against women at a regional level 1 trauma center during the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Surgeon.


Weisheit R, Harmon MG, Ingram J, & Cottle C. (2021). The geography of police killings utilising crowdsourced data. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice.


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