The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

December 2021

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy



Veterans Day is observed annually on November 11th to commemorate those who served in the U.S. armed forces. Not only is it important to remember military personnel and veterans for their services and sacrifices, but it is also crucial to raise awareness on relevant veteran issues that have affected communities across the United States. Since 2010, more than 65,000 veterans have died by suicide – far more than the total number of deaths from military operations in Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan. There are growing concerns of suicides among U.S. armed forces as veterans die by suicide at an increasingly higher rate than that of civilians and are more likely to use a firearm as their method.


In recent years, government leaders, community organizations, and advocates have prioritized military and veteran suicide through a comprehensive public health approach to increase suicide prevention efforts. In November 2021, the Biden-Harris Administration outlined evidenced-informed strategies, goals, and executive action orders to address the growing military and veteran suicide crisis such as improving lethal means safety, enhancing crisis care and facilitating care transitions, increasing access to and delivery of effective care, addressing upstream risk and protective factors, and increasing research coordination, data sharing, and evaluation efforts. In terms of research, there are relevant studies published this year including the characteristics and context of veterans experiencing suicide attempt by firearm and the documentation of screening for firearm access by healthcare providers. Check this month’s newsletter for more information on military and veteran suicide.


Federal updates


New resources


Judicial updates


Media highlights

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Anestis JC, Anestis MD, Preston OC, & Rodriguez TR. (2021). Dispositional characteristics in firearm ownership and purchasing behavior during the 2020 purchasing surge. Social Science & Medicine.


Anestis MD, Bandel SL, & Bond AE. (2021). The association of suicidal ideation with firearm purchasing during a firearm purchasing surge. JAMA Network Open.


Asarnow JR, Zullo L, Ernestus SM, Venables CW, Goldston DB, Tunno AM, & Betz ME. (2021). “Lock and protect”: Development of a digital decision aid to support lethal means counseling in parents of suicidal youth. Frontiers in Psychiatry.


Barrett JT, Lee LK, Monuteaux MC, Farrell CA, Hoffmann JA, & Fleegler EW. (2021). Association of county-level poverty and inequities with firearm-related mortality in US youth. JAMA Pediatrics.


Beiter K, Smith AA, Tedesco A, Brown T, Chapman BM, Marr AB, Stuke LE, Schoen JE, Greiffenstein P, & Hunt JP. (2021). Discrepancies in mass shootings and access to trauma care across the US, 2014-2018. Journal of the American College of Surgeons.


Carpenter RK & Stinson JD. (2021). Neighborhood-level predictors of sexual violence across intimate partner and non-intimate partner relationships: A case–control study. Sexual Abuse.


Carson JV, Dierenfeldt R, & Fisher D. (2021). Country-level firearm availability and terrorism: A new approach to examining the gun-crime relationship. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.


Caves Sivaraman JJ, Greene SB, Naumann RB, Proescholdbell S, Ranapurwala SI, & Marshall SW. (2021). Association between medical diagnoses and suicide in a Medicaid beneficiary population, North Carolina 2014-2017. Epidemiology.


Cheng T & Burjonrappa S. (2021). Pediatric firearm injury trends in the United States: A National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) analysis. Journal of Pediatric Surgery.


Das A, Singh P, & Bruckner T. (2021). Permissiveness of firearm laws, pro-gun culture, and suicides by firearm in the U.S., 2000–2016. Public Health in Practice.


Ellyson AM, Rivara FP, & Rowhani-Rahbar A. (2021). Poverty and firearm-related deaths among US youth. JAMA Pediatrics.


Freitas C & Annas GD. (2021). Warning behaviors and leaked intent: Potential new avenues to prevent mass shootings. Journal of Forensic Sciences.


Frey A & Kirk DS. (2021). The impact of mass shootings on attitudes toward gun restrictions. Socius.


García-Montoya L, Arjona A, & Lacombe M. (2021). Violence and voting in the United States: How school shootings affect elections. American Political Science Review.


Garnar T, Lister SLP, & Carlson J. (2021). Whiteness and impunity: Examining Virginia’s second amendment sanctuary movement. Sociological Inquiry.


Gunn JF & Boxer P. (2021). Youth gun and weapon carrying and suicide rates for those aged 24 years and younger, 2005–2017. Journal of Adolescent Health.


Hepburn L, Azrael D, & Miller M. (2021). Firearm background checks in states with and without background check laws. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Hipple NK, Reynolds AE, Hancher-Rauch H, & Moore, E. (2021). Unintentional nonfatal shootings: Using police data to provide context. CrimRxiv.


Irby DJ & Coney K. (2021). The 1994 gun-free schools act: Its effects 25 years later and how to undo them. Peabody Journal of Education.


Johnson RM, Crifasi C, Anderson Goodell EM, Wiśniowski A, Sakshaug JW, Thrul J, & Owens M. (2021). Differences in beliefs about COVID-19 by gun ownership: A cross-sectional survey of Texas adults. BMJ Open.


Keenan K, Oestreicher J, Avshman E, Rodriguez M, Cerise J, & Krief W. (2021). 111 Safe gun storage and risk of pediatric firearm suicide. Annals of Emergency Medicine.


Koo GH. (2021). Are you frightened? Children’s cognitive and affective reactions to news coverage of school shootings. Mass Communication and Society.


Lu P, Wen F, Li Y, & Chen D. (2021). Multi-agent modeling of crowd dynamics under mass shooting cases. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals.


Maher EJ, Gerlinger J, Wood AD, & Ho K. (2021). Won’t you be my neighbor? Neighborhood characteristics associated with mass shootings in the USA. Race and Social Problems.


Nestadt PS. (2021). Firearms and psychiatry. International Review of Psychiatry.


Neufeld MY, Poulson M, Sanchez SE, & Siegel MB. (2021). State firearm laws and nonfatal firearm injury-related inpatient hospitalizations: A nationwide panel study. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.


Nickols AK, Benns MV, Bozeman MC, Nash NA, Smith JW, Franklin GA, Harbrecht BG, & Miller KR. (2021). Applying the antecedent, behavior, consequence taxonomy to unintentional firearm injury in a civilian population as determined by a collaborative hospital and law enforcement database. Journal of the American College of Surgeons.


Oliphant SN. (2021). Examining time-variant spatial dependence of urban places and shootings. Journal of Urban Health.


Osborne MC, Self-Brown S, & Lai BS. (2021). Child maltreatment, suicidal ideation, and in-home firearm availability in the U.S.: Findings from the longitudinal studies of child abuse and neglect. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion.


Palatucci JS & Monheit AC. (2021). The impact of increasing community-directed state mental health agency expenditures on violent crime. Community Mental Health Journal. 


Pallin R, Aubel AJ, Knoepke CE, Pear VA, Wintemute GJ, & Kravitz-Wirtz N. (2021). News media coverage of extreme risk protection order policies surrounding the Parkland shooting: A mixed-methods analysis. BMC Public Health.


Pallin R, Tomsich E, Schleimer JP, Pear VA, Charbonneau A, Wintemute GJ, & Knoepke CE. (2021). Understanding the circumstances and stakeholder perceptions of gun violence restraining order use in California: A qualitative study. Criminology & Public Policy.


Peterson J, Erickson G, Knapp K, & Densley J. (2021). Communication of intent to do harm preceding mass public shootings in the United States, 1966 to 2019. JAMA Network Open.


Petrosky E, Mercer Kollar LM, Kearns MC, Smith SG, Betz CJ, Fowler KA, & Satter DE. (2021). Homicides of American Indians/Alaska Natives—National Violent Death Reporting System, United States, 2003-2018. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries.


Ranney ML. (2021). Pediatric firearm injuries and fatalities. Annals of Emergency Medicine.


Riehm KE, Mojtabai R, Adams LB, Krueger EA, Mattingly DT, Nestadt PS, & Leventhal AM. (2021). Adolescents’ concerns about school violence or shootings and association with depressive, anxiety, and panic symptoms. JAMA Network Open.


Rooney L, Conrick KM, Bellenger MA, Moore M, Haviland MJ, Gause E, Rivara FP, & Rowhani-Rahbar A. (2021). Understanding the process, context, and characteristics of extreme risk protection orders: A statewide study. Journal Of Health Care For The Poor And Underserved.


Rowhani-Rahbar A, Haviland MJ, Azrael D, & Miller M. (2021). Knowledge of state gun laws among US Adults in gun-owning households. JAMA Network Open. 


Seng SS, Valles K, & Ratnasekera A. (2021). Highlighting the burden of firearm injuries to a trend of gun violence in southeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of the American College of Surgeons.


Simonetti JA, Wortzel HS, & Matarazzo BB. (2021). Therapeutic risk management and firearm-related lethal means safety. Journal of Psychiatric Practice®.


Smith S, Ferguson CJ, Askew R, Pitts J, Hinderleider A. Gun ownership, poverty, and mental health associations with crime: A cross-state comparison. Criminology & Criminal Justice.


Steidley T & Yamane D. (2021). Special issue editors’ introduction: A sociology of firearms for the twenty-first century. Sociological Perspectives.


Szendrő B. (2021). Community, faith, and public violence: A county-level examination of religious institutions and mass public shootings in the United States. Journal of Crime and Justice.


Warner TD & Steidley T. (2021). Some fear, more loathing? Threats and anxieties shaping protective gun ownership and gun carry in the U.S. Journal of Crime and Justice.


Waseem M, Morrissey K, Nelsen A, & Ata A. (2021). 144 Should teachers carry guns in schools? An emergency department survey of parents’ opinion and potential solutions. Annals of Emergency Medicine.


Wintemute GJ. (2021). Guns, violence, politics: The gyre widens. Injury Epidemiology.


Wood B & Hampton E. (2021). How teachers feel about arming educators in k-12 schools: A statewide investigation. Journal of School Violence.


Zavala C, Buggs S, & Fischer KR. (2021). States should use medicaid to support violence intervention efforts. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.


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