The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

September 2021

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy



As students across the country head back to school, parents and public health advocates are watching closely in the hopes that the return to in-person instruction doesn’t bring with it an uptick in COVID-19 cases – or school shootings. Rates of community gun violence have surged since the start of the pandemic, and firearm sales reached record numbers in 2020, meaning millions more young people now have access to firearms in their homes. The possibility of gun violence reaching into our schools and their surrounding neighborhoods is all too real.


While concerns about school and youth safety are well-founded, there is also reason for optimism. Efforts to address youth gun violence are happening locally. For example, in Philadelphia, the city’s new anti-violence expansion grants are available for community-based organizations focused on providing school safety programs for students. Research continues to advance in this area, too: see this month’s research recap at the end of this newsletter for more than 15 new papers related to school safety and youth firearm violence.


Speaking of the research recap, a highlight from this month’s new publications: the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine has a special issue on firearm violence injury and prevention. Some papers were featured in previous newsletters, but the whole issue is now available here.


Congressional/Federal updates

  • The Consortium, along with CSGV, has endorsed the Child Suicide Prevention and Lethal Means Safety Act (H.R. 5035), introduced in the House on August 13th by Rep. Lauren Underwood. The Consortium was instrumental in bringing attention to lethal means safety counseling as an area for policy development, including a 2017 comprehensive report on the role of health care provider training programs, “Breaking Through Barriers: The Emerging Role of Healthcare Provider Training Programs in Firearm Suicide Prevention.” In the report, the Consortium made recommendations that if implemented, would “equip healthcare providers to deal tactfully, respectfully and directly with the issue of firearms and suicide.” This bill would raise awareness of youth suicide prevention and develop resources for lethal means safety counseling, including:
    • Establishing grant programs that:
      • Provide funding for initiatives that offer youth suicide prevention and lethal means safety education, training, and resources to health care professionals.
      • Integrate lethal means safety and suicide prevention topics into curricula at health professional schools to ensure that future nurses, doctors, and mental and behavioral health care providers have received the education and training that will allow them to prevent lethal means injuries, deaths, and suicides among their patients.
    • Creating a centralized hub to provide important lethal means safety and suicide prevention information to at-risk youth and their family members, health professional schools, and health care providers.
  • The Secure Background Checks Act of 2021 (H.R. 5080), which aims to close loopholes in the NICS Background Check System, was introduced on August 23rd by Rep. Joe Neguse.
  • Senator Dianne Feinstein, Richard Blumenthal and Sheldon Whitehouse announced the introduction of the Accountability for Online Marketplaces Act to hold accountable online gun marketplaces that allow illegal gun sales to be conducted on their platforms. The legislation would ensure that websites like Armslist no longer enjoy blanket immunity and can be brought to justice for violations of law.

New resources

Judicial updates

  • The Supreme Court announced they will hear oral arguments for NYSRPA v. Bruen, the most significant Second Amendment case since District of Columbia v. Heller, on November 3rd, 2021.
    • Other important dates: The Response Brief is due on September 14th and Amicus Briefs in Support of New York are due on September 21st.
  • In Drummond v. Robinson Township, the Third Circuit Court of Appeals reversed a district court’s decision to throw out a case regarding zoning regulations that prevent the sale and use of certain firearms in a township. The Third Circuit concluded that the zoning law could possibly violate the Second Amendment, because the court could not readily determine how banning rim-fire rifles and requiring gun ranges to have nonprofit ownership was reasonably fit to protecting public health, safety, and welfare.

Media highlights

Upcoming events

Finally, the Educational Fund to Stop Gun Violence — the organization that manages and staffs the Consortium — is hiring, with new positions recently listed. Please share our career opportunities with your networks.


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Special issue on firearm violence injury and prevention, edited by Saucedo C. (2021). Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.


Armstrong MJ, Moore K, Jacobson CE, Bedenfield N, Patel B, & Sullivan JL. (2021). Frequency of suicidal ideation and associated clinical features in Lewy body dementia. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.


Baranauskas AJ. (2021). Racial sentiment and public support for arming teachers with guns in the United States. Race and Justice.


Blocher J. (2021). The biggest legal obstacle to gun regulation: State preemption laws, not the second amendment. American Journal of Public Health.


Boine C, Caffrey K, & Siegel M. (2021). Who are gun owners in the United States? A latent class analysis of the 2019 National Lawful Use of Guns Survey. Sociological Perspectives.


Bordin IA, Handegård BH, Paula CS, Duarte CS, & Rønning JA. (2021). Home, school, and community violence exposure and emotional and conduct problems among low-income adolescents: The moderating role of age and sex. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.


Borg BA, Rabinak CA, & Marusak HA. (2021). Violence exposure and mental health consequences among urban youth. Current Psychology.


Brown D. (2021). The burn behind the bullet: Understanding black mothers’ experiences after losing a child to gun violence in Washington, DC-Baltimore city metropolitan region. Georgetown Scientific Research Journal.


Castillo C, Chang R, Glassman S, Jones G, Venkatachalam AM, Williams T, & Ifejika NL. (2021). Advocacy for the prevention and reduction of firearm-related injuries. PM&R.


Cheng T. (2021). Social media, socialization, and pursuing legitimation of police violence*. Criminology.


Cohen J. (2021). School safety and violence: Research and clinical understandings, trends, and improvement strategies. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies.


Copeland WE, Tong G, Gifford EJ, Easter MM, Shanahan L, Swartz MS, & Swanson JW. (2021). Childhood gun access, adult suicidality, and crime. Pediatrics.


Dodson N. (2020). To end gun violence against children, the firearms industry must be held accountable. Human Rights.


Dorris L & Murphy AL. (2021). No more politics over people: The role of helping professions in the prevention of mass shootings and gun-related violence. Traumatology.


Duncombe SL, Tanaka H, De Larochelambert Q, Schipman J, Toussaint JF, & Antero J. (2021). High hopes: Lower risk of death due to mental disorders and self-harm in a century-long US Olympian cohort compared with the general population. British Journal of Sports Medicine.


Eppler-Wolff N & Martin A. (2021). Creating safe schools by building safe relationships. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies.


Felix ED, Janson M, Fly J, & Powers J. (2021). Social-cognitive mediators of the relationship of media exposure to acute mass violence and distress among adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.


Floyd AS, Lyons VH, Whiteside LK, Haggerty KP, Rivara FP, & Rowhani-Rahbar A. (2021). Barriers to recruitment, retention and intervention delivery in a randomized trial among patients with firearm injuries. Injury Epidemiology.


Fowler KA, Leavitt RA, Betz CJ, Yuan K, & Dahlberg LL. (2021). Examining differences between mass, multiple, and single-victim homicides to inform prevention: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Injury Epidemiology.


Gammell SP, Connell NM, & Huskey MG. (2021). A descriptive analysis of the characteristics of school shootings across five decades. American Journal of Criminal Justice.


Gastineau KAB, Williams DJ, Hall M, Goyal MK, Wells J, Freundlich KL, Carroll AR, Browning WL, Doherty K, Fritz CQ, Frost PA, Kreth H, Plancarte C, & Barkin S. (2021). Pediatric firearm-related hospital encounters during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Pediatrics.


Gaston S, Shamserad F, & Huebner BM. (2021). “Every thought and dream a nightmare”: Violence and trauma among formerly imprisoned gang members. Criminal Justice and Behavior.


Goldstein EV, Prater LC, & Wickizer TM. (2021). Preventing adolescent and young adult suicide: Do states with greater mental health treatment capacity have lower suicide rates? Journal of Adolescent Health.


Haque AF & Jorge E. (2021). When the kids get guns—the effects of lowering the minimum age of firearm possession in Alabama. Preventive Medicine Reports.


Higgins EM, Coffey BS, Fisher BW, Benitez I, & Swartz K. (2021). School safety or school criminalization? The typical day of a school resource officer in the United States. The British Journal of Criminology.


Hink AB. (2021). Using state hospitalization databases to improve firearm injury data—a step in the right direction. JAMA Network Open.


Hoops KEM. (2021). Opening the door to a discussion on gun safety. JAMA Health Forum.


Hsu YT, Chen YW, Chang DC, Perez NP, Westfal ML, Hung YC, Kelleher CM, Masiakos PT, & Sacks CA. (2021). Annual incidence of hospitalization for nonfatal firearm-related injuries in New York From 2005 to 2016. JAMA Network Open.


Johnson BL, Beckworth K, Bhalakia A, DeMello A, & Naik-Mathuria B. (2021). Implementation of a firearm safety guidance training program for pediatric providers. Journal of Pediatric Surgery.


Kafka JM, Moracco KE, Williams DS, & Hoffman CG. (2021). What is the role of firearms in nonfatal intimate partner violence? Findings from civil protective order case data. Social Science & Medicine.


Kagawa RMC & Riley ED. (2021). Gun violence against unhoused and unstably housed women: A cross-sectional study that highlights links to childhood violence. Injury Epidemiology.


Kelley MS. (2021). Feminism and firearms: Gun ownership, gun carrying, and women’s empowerment. Sociological Perspectives.


Kowalski RM, Leary M, Hendley T, Rubley K, Chapman C, Chitty H, Carroll H, Cook A, Richardson E, Robbins C, Wells S, Bourque L, Oakley R, Bednar H, Jones R, Tolleson K, Fisher K, Graham R, Scarborough M,…Longacre M. (2021). K-12, college/university, and mass shootings: Similarities and differences. The Journal of Social Psychology.


Lee J, Kanthawala S, Britt BC, Deavours DF, & Ott-Fulmore T. (2021). Prevalence of anger, engaged in sadness: Engagement in misinformation, correction, and emotional tweets during mass shootings. Online Information Review.


Logan TK & Lynch KR. (2021). Increased risks or peace of mind? Exploring fear, victimization, and safety strategies among women planning to get a gun. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.


Lynch KR, Jackson DB, & Logan TK. (2021). Coercive control, stalking, and guns: Modeling service professionals’ perceived risk of potentially fatal intimate partner gun violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.


Magee LA, Ranney ML, Fortenberry JD, Rosenman M, Gharbi S, & Wiehe SE. (2021). Identifying nonfatal firearm assault incidents through linking police data and clinical records: Cohort study in Indianapolis, Indiana, 2007–2016. Preventive Medicine.


Martínez-Alés G, Gimbrone C, Rutherford C, Kandula S, Olfson M, Gould MS, Shaman J, & Keyes KM. (2021). Role of firearm ownership on 2001–2016 trends in U.S. firearm suicide rates. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 


Mayer MJ, Nickerson AB, & Jimerson SR. (2021). Preventing school violence and promoting school safety: Contemporary scholarship advancing science, practice, and policy. School Psychology Review.


McLeod RS, Moore EE, Crozier JA, Civil ID, Ahmed N, Bulger EM, & Stewart RM. (2021). A public health approach to prevent firearm related injuries and deaths. Annals of Surgery.


Molina EG, Bare K, Zinter K, & McMahon S. (2021). Assessing instrumental weapons violence against teachers. DePaul Discoveries.


Muir MSP. (2021). Gun violence: A chronic disease affecting American youth. Pediatric Nursing.


Mulcahy LB, Goyal MK, & Cohen J. (2021). Documentation of firearm safety screening during emergency department visits for assault-related injury. Health Promotion Practice.


Nicholson D & Allely CS. (2021). Exploring female involvement in acts of terrorism and mass shootings: A systematic review. Journal of Criminal Psychology.


Onat I, Guler A, Kula S, & Bastug MF. (2021). Fear of terrorism and fear of violent crimes in the United States: A comparative analysis. Crime & Delinquency.


Pallin R, Wintemute GJ, & Kravitz-Wirtz N. (2021). Firearm practices, perceptions of safety, and opinions on injury prevention strategies among California adults. JAMA Network Open.


Parrott DJ, Halmos MB, Stappenbeck CA, & Moino K. (2021). Intimate partner aggression during the COVID-19 pandemic: Associations with stress and heavy drinking. Psychology of Violence.


Poulson M, Neufeld MY, Dechert T, Allee L, & Kenzik KM. (2021). Historic redlining, structural racism, and firearm violence: A structural equation modeling approach. The Lancet Regional Health – Americas.


Presser MJ, Quiroz HJ, Perez EA, Sola JE, Namias N, & Thorson CM. (2021). Comparing fatal child abuse involving biological and surrogate parents. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.


Quinn DA. (2021). A family health impact analysis of current United States gun policy. National Council on Family Relations.


Rajan S. (2021). School safety and violence: Drawing on a public health approach. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies.


Ramchand R, Colpe L, Claassen C, Brinton S, Carr C, McKeon R, & Schoenbaum M. (2021). Prioritizing improved data and surveillance for suicide in the United States in response to COVID-19. American Journal of Public Health.


Ranjan S, Shah AK, Strange CC, & Stillman K. (2021). Hospital-based violence intervention: Strategies for cultivating internal support, community partnerships, and strengthening practitioner engagement. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research.


Richards JE., Kuo E, Stewart C, Bobb JF, Mettert KD, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Betz ME, Parrish R, Whiteside U, Boggs JM, & Simon GE. (2021). Self-reported access to firearms among patients receiving care for mental health and substance use. JAMA Health Forum.


Ruch DA, Heck KM, Sheftall AH, Fontanella CA, Stevens J, Zhu M, Horowitz LM, Campo JV, & Bridge JA. (2021). Characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide among children aged 5 to 11 years in the United States, 2013-2017. JAMA Network Open. 


Ruoppila S. (2021). Hiding the unwanted: A university-level campus carry policy. Higher Education.


Sanko A, Lawter D, Anselmo D, Castro T, Coggins R, Cloward G, Davenport E, & Padilla J. (2021). Guns in the sky: Nevada’s firearm laws, 1 October, and next steps. Nevada Law Journal Forum.


Schwartz DS, Thompson J, Locrotondo T, & Heggers S. (2021). Initial acuity of firearm injuries in the United States: Are civilian injuries similar to combat casualty statistics. Internal and Emergency Medicine.


Steadman JL. (2021). Ethical and legal considerations when patients disclose knowledge of a weapon in a school. Journal of Health Service Psychology.


Tergesen M. (2021). Marching for our lives, not yours: An analysis of frames, news coverage, and the March for Our Lives movement. Sojourners Undergraduate Journal of Sociology.


Vidal XM, Páez RA, & Shields TG. (2021). Identity and the racialized politics of violence in gun regulation policy preferences. Social Science Quarterly.


Wallace LN. (2021). Associations between gun storage practices and parenting practices: A Pennsylvania study. Journal of Child and Family Studies.


Williams MF. (2021). Gun control and gun rights: A conceptual framework for analyzing public policy issues in technical and professional communication. Technical Communication Quarterly.


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