The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

Summer 2023

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy



As summer is coming to an end, gun violence continues to cast a dark shadow over communities across the country. While many associate this season with carefree moments of leisure and relaxation, it is disheartening to acknowledge that for far too many, it has been marked by tragedy and loss.

As we bid farewell to the warmth of summer, we must also reflect on the urgent need for comprehensive solutions to address gun violence. The shift in seasons should serve as a reminder that the safety and well-being of our communities must remain a year-round commitment, one that seeks to create a future where all can enjoy the simple pleasures of life without the threat of gun violence.





This month we are featuring the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Violence Solutions report, “U.S. Gun Violence in 2021: An Accounting of a Public Health Crisis” authored by Ari Davis, Rose Kim and Cassandra Crifasi. This report used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data to provide a comprehensive analysis of the 2021 firearm fatality data, the most recent year of finalized data publicly available.

In 2021, 48,830 lives were lost to firearms, the highest number on record to date. Both firearm homicides and suicides reached record highs. More than half of these deaths were from suicide. Furthermore, the firearm suicide rate increased 8.3 percent in 2021, the highest one-year increase in four decades.  

The data also showed how different demographic groups were disproportionately impacted by gun violence in the same year. Guns remained the leading cause of death for children and teens ages 1-19. Black people in the U.S. were nearly 14 times more likely to die by gun homicide than their white counterparts. Young Black males ages 15-34 were most at risk as they accounted for 36 percent of all gun homicides in 2021 but represented only two percent of the total U.S. population.  

The report highlights evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing firearm-related deaths and saving lives.  



  • Center for American Progress report, The Bipartisan Safer Communities Act, 1 Year Later 
  • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health national survey results regarding public opinion on gun violence 
  • Everytown for Gun Safety report, Inside the Gun Shop: Firearm Dealers and their Impact 
  • Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Violence Solutions and Everytown for Gun Safety report, Promising Approaches for Implementing Extreme Risk Laws 
  • Joyce Foundation and Ad Council Research Institute report, ERPOs: Understanding Public Knowledge & Attitudes Toward Extreme Risk Protection Orders 
  • Center For Gun Violence Solutions led amicus brief of 111 public health researchers and lawyers in support of the government in United States v. Rahimi. 





Crifasi CK, Ward J, McCourt AD, Webster D, & Doucette ML. (2023). The association between permit-to-purchase laws and shootings by police. Injury Epidemiology. 


Ellyson AM, Schleimer JP, Dalve K, Gause E, Weybright EH, Kuklinski MR, Oesterle S, & Rowhani-Rahbar A. (2023). The association of alcohol use and heavy drinking with subsequent handgun carrying among youth from rural areas. The Journal of Rural Health.  


Grimsley EA, Read MD, McGee MY, Torikashvili JV, Richmond NT, Janjua HM, & Kuo PC. (2023). Association of state-level factors with rate of firearm-related deaths. Surgery Open Science.  


Haasz M, Myers MG, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Zimmerman MA, Seewald L, Sokol RL, Cunningham RM, & Carter PM. (2023). Firearms availability among high-school age youth with recent depression or suicidality. Pediatrics.  


Hullenaar KL, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Morgan ER, Hicks CD, & Rivara FP. (2023). Mental health comorbidities, household firearm ownership, and firearm access among children. Pediatrics.  


Jay J. (2023). Structural Racism and Long-term disparities in youth exposure to firearm violence. JAMA Network Open.  


Kang MS & Rasich EA. (2023). Extending the firearm suicide proxy for household gun ownership. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.  


Kawano B, Agarwal S, Krishnamoorthy V, Raghunathan K, Fernandez-Moure JS, & Haines KL. (2023). State firearm laws and rates of assault-related firearm death. Journal of the American College of Surgeons.  


Kwon EG, Nehra D, Hall M, Herrera-Escobar JP, Rivara FP, & Rice-Townsend SE. (2023). The association between childhood opportunity index and pediatric hospitalization for firearm injury or motor vehicle crash. Surgery.  


Lanfear CC, Bucci R, Kirk DS, & Sampson RJ. (2023). Inequalities in exposure to firearm violence by race, sex, and birth cohort from childhood to age 40 years, 1995-2021. JAMA Network Open.  


Pizarro JM, Messing JT, AbiNader M, Zeoli AM, Spearman K, & Campbell J. (2023). Building a transdisciplinary team to prevent intimate partner homicide: A research note. Homicide Studies.  


Poulson MR, Neufeld MY, Laraja A, Allee L, Kenzik KM, & Dechert T. (2023). The effect of historic redlining on firearm violence. Journal of the National Medical Association.  


Smith A, Fitzpatrick-Schmidt T, Beiter K, Cavalea AC, Scharf P, Schoen J, Stuke L, Greiffenstein P, Marr A, Tedesco A, & Hunt JP. (2023). The COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts on mass shootings in six major US cities. Injury. 


Stansfield R, Semenza D, & Silver I. (2023). The relationship between concealed carry licenses and firearm homicide in the US: A reciprocal county-level analysis. Journal of Urban Health.  


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