The Consortium for Risk-Based Firearm Policy              

July 2021

The Consortium for Risked-Based Firearm Policy



The first half of 2021 has thrown into sharp relief the need for common sense gun violence prevention policies and programs. Now at midyear, rates of interpersonal violence are rising above last year’s historic highs, and firearm purchasing continues to surge. As Americans celebrated the Fourth of July weekend, more than 180 people were killed in over 540 shootings, another painful reminder of the increasing number of Americans who live in daily fear of gun violence.


New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo became the first in the nation to declare a state of emergency for gun violence, calling it an epidemic that New York must face in much the same way – or better than! – it did the COVID-19 pandemic. We are hopeful that this approach follows the best available research, centers the voices and needs of impacted communities, and includes the resources they need to meaningfully address the root causes that contribute to gun violence.


Federal updates

  • On June 23rd, the Biden-Harris administration announced a comprehensive strategy to prevent and respond to gun violence. The White House describes five components to the strategy: 1) stem the flow of firearms used to commit violence, including by holding rogue firearms dealers accountable for violating federal laws; 2) support local law enforcement with federal tools and resources to help address summer violent crime; 3) invest in evidence-based community violence interventions; 4) expand summer programming, employment opportunities, and other services and supports for teenagers and young adults; and 5) help formerly incarcerated individuals successfully reenter their communities.
  • The Break the Cycles of Violence Act H.R. 4118 / S. 2275 was reintroduced on June 24th by Rep. Horsford, Sen. Booker with dozens of co-sponsors. This bill would require HHS to invest $5 billion in grants over eight years to community-based violence intervention and prevention initiatives, and it would create a national office of community violence intervention to provide technical assistance to grantees funded through the program. This bill will also invest $1.5 billion in grants to support job training programs for youth in communities disproportionately impacted by gun violence.

New resources

Media highlights

Upcoming events

Finally, the Educational Fund to Stop Gun Violence — the organization that manages and staffs the Consortium — is hiring! Please share our career opportunities with your networks.


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Ammons-Blanfort C, D’Alessio SJ, & Stolzenberg L. (2021). Self-Help and Black Firearm Crime. Crime & Delinquency.


Bagdure D, Foster CB, Garber N, Holloway A, Day J, Lee J, Soto-Campos G, Brundage N, Bhutta A, & Graciano AL. (2021). Outcomes of children with firearm injuries admitted to the PICU in the United States. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine.


Barsotti C & Langlois A. (2021). Standing AFFIRM: ERPO documentation must reflect extreme risk. Emergency Medicine News.


Borthwell RM, Olanrewaju S, Putnam BA, Kim DY, & Chong VE. (2021). Recovery of pediatric patients after firearm injury: Can health systems do more? The American Surgeon. 


Carter PM, Zimmerman MA, & Cunningham RM. (2021). Addressing key gaps in existing longitudinal research and establishing a pathway forward for firearm violence prevention research. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology.


Cheng Y & Shen H. (2021). Decisions to react after mass shootings: Exploring negative affect, relational trust, and public behavioral intentions toward the National Rifle Association. Journal of Applied Communication Research.


Corburn J, Boggan D, Muttaqi K, Vaughn S, Houston J, Thibodeaux J, & Muhammad B. (2021). A healing-centered approach to preventing urban gun violence: The advance peace model. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications.


Crifasi CK, Ward JA, McGinty EE, Webster DW, & Barry CL. (2021). Gun purchasing behaviours during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, March to mid-July 2020. International Review of Psychiatry.


Donnelly KA, Rucker A, Boyle MD, Fornari MJ, Badolato GM, & Goyal MK. (2021). Experiencing bullying is associated with firearm access, weapon carriage, depression, marijuana use, and justice involvement in adolescents. Pediatric Emergency Care.


Galiatsatos P, Cudjoe TKM, Bratcher J, Heikkinen P, Leaf P, & Golden SH. (2021). Second victims: Aftermath of gun violence and faith-based responses. Journal of Religion and Health.


Glick ID, Cerfolio NE, Kamis D, & Laurence M. (2021). Domestic mass shooters: The association with unmedicated and untreated psychiatric illness. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.


Grim M. (2021). “This will save lives”: Evaluating the Illinois Firearms Restraining Order Act (FRO). Public Health Review.


Halimeh BN, Hughes D, Evans B, Emberson J, Turco L, Zakrison TL, & Winfield RD. (2021). Empowering the affected: Informing community-based solutions through interviews with survivors of interpersonal firearm violence-perspectives of survivors of firearm injuries. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.


Hawkins D. (2021). 2nd Amendment violation and as-applied challenge. Wisconsin Law Journal. 


Huesmann LR, Dubow EF, Boxer PB, Bushman BJ, Smith CS, Docherty MA, & O’Brien MJ. (2021). Longitudinal predictions of young adults’ weapons use and criminal behavior from their childhood exposure to violence. Aggressive Behavior.


Hureau D & Wilson T. (2021). The co-occurrence of illegal gun carrying and gun violence exposure: Evidence for practitioners from young people adjudicated for serious involvement in crime. American Journal of Epidemiology.


James S, Gold S, Rouhani S, McLanahan S, & Brooks-Gunn J. (2021). Adolescent exposure to deadly gun violence within 500 meters of home or school: Ethnoracial and income disparities. Health Affairs.


Kravitz-Wirtz N, Aubel AJ, Pallin R, & Wintemute GJ. (2021). Public awareness of and personal willingness to use California’s Extreme Risk Protection Order law to prevent firearm-related harm. JAMA Health Forum. 


Lam E, Moreno M, Bennett E, & Rowhani-Rahbar A. (2021). Receptiveness and responsiveness toward using social media for safe firearm storage outreach: Mixed methods study. Journal of Medical Internet Research.


Lawter D & Sanko A. (2021). Guns in the sky: Nevada’s firearm laws, 1 October, and next steps. Nevada Law Journal Forum.


LeCount RJ. (2021). Who wants to know? White racial attitudes and survey item refusal on gun ownership questions. Sociological Inquiry.


Lee JY, Pham A, Wong J, & Deng Z. (2021). Firearm-related internet searches as a correlate of future firearm suicides: Cross-correlation analyses of monthly google search volumes and method-specific suicide rates in the United States. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports.


Logan TK & Lynch K. (2021). Exploring abuser firearm-related attitudes, behaviors, and threats among women with (ex)partners who threatened to shoot others. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management.


Merrill-Francis M, McGinty EE, Barry CL, Webster DW, & Crifasi CK. (2021). Association between gun owner attitudes and their behavior in private firearm sales. Preventive Medicine.


Montanez J & Donley A. (2021). Opinions on a firearm prohibition policy that targets intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.


Newland JA. The epidemic of gun violence in America. (2021). The Nurse Practitioner.


Oddo ER, Maldonado L, Hink AB, Simpson AN, & Andrews AL. (2021). Increase in mental health diagnoses among youth with non-fatal firearm injuries: Mental health diagnoses after non-fatal firearm injury. Academic Pediatrics.


Olufajo OA, Williams M, Ahuja G, Okereke NK, Zeineddin A, Hughes K, Cooper Z, & Cornwell EE. (2021). Patterns and trends of gun violence against women in the United States. Annals of Surgery.


Osborne MC, Self-Brown S, Culbreth RE, Lai BS, & Gilmore AK. (2021). Adolescent firearm suicide risk patterns: A latent class analysis using U.S. National Violent Death Reporting System surveillance data, 2007-2017. Children and Youth Services Review.


Paez GR, Capellan JA, & Johnson MG. (2021). Contextualising mass school shootings in the United States. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling.


Pardini DA & Mulvey E. (2021). Special section introduction: Revitalizing developmental research on adolescent gun involvement. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology.


Pomeranz JL & Ochoa G. (2021). Firearm extreme risk protection order laws and preemption: New developments and outstanding issues, 50 states, 2020. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Pomeranz JL, Silver D, & Lieff SA. (2021). State gun-control, gun-rights, and preemptive firearm-related laws across 50 US states for 2009‒2018. American Journal of Public Health.


Price JH, Khubchandani J, & Foh EP. (2021). Unintentional firearm mortality in African-American youths, 2010-2019. Journal of the National Medical Association.


Ratnasekera AM, Seng SS, Jacovides CL, Kolb R, Hanlon A, Stawicki SP, Martin ND, & Kaufman EJ. (2021). Rising incidence of interpersonal violence in Pennsylvania during COVID-19 stay-at home order: Interpersonal violence in the era of COVID-19. Surgery.


Rusho MA, Ahmed MA, & Sadri AM. (2021). Social media response and crisis communications in active shootings during COVID-19 pandemic. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives.


Sadler RC, Melde C, Zeoli A, Wolfe S, & O’Brien M. (2021). Characterizing spatio-temporal differences in homicides and non-fatal shootings in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 2006–2015. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy.


Scaptura MN & Boyle KM. (2021). Protecting manhood: Race, class, and masculinity in men’s attraction to guns and aggression. Men and Masculinities.


Semenza DC & Stansfield R. (2021). Non-fatal gun violence and community health behaviors: A neighborhood analysis in Philadelphia. Journal of Behavioral Medicine.


Sharkey P & Shen Y. (2021). The effect of mass shootings on daily emotions is limited by time, geographic proximity, and political affiliation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Silver AH, Azzarone G, Dodson N, Curley M, Eisenberg R, Kim M, & O’Connor K. (2021). A randomized controlled trial for parents of hospitalized children: Keeping kids safe from guns. Hospital Pediatrics.


Taylor JS, Madhavan S, Han RW, Chandler JM, Tenakoon L, & Chao S. (2021). Financial burden of pediatric firearm-related injury admissions in the United States. Plos One.


Thomas SP. (2021). The other pandemic: Gun violence and its impact on children and youth. Issues in Mental Health Nursing.


Wallin MA, Holliday CN, & Zeoli AM. (2021). The association of federal and state-level firearm restriction policies with intimate partner homicide: A re-analysis by race of the victim. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.


Whaley AL. (2021). The cultural ecology of gun violence: Culture of honor and code of the street. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race.


Zeineddin S, Zeineddin A, Jain A, Olufajo OA, Koolaee S, Cornwell EE, & Williams M. (2021). Disfiguring firearm injuries in children in the United States. The American Surgeon.


Zuriaga A, Kaplan MS, Choi NG, Hodkinson A, Storman D, Brudasca NI, Hirani SP, & Brini S. (2021). Association of mental disorders with firearm suicides: A systematic review with meta-analyses of observational studies in the United States. Journal of Affective Disorders.


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